Chang Quan includes chaquan and huaquan , is a major school of wushu, which uses the three hand forms of quan , zhang and gou and the five stances of gongbu , mabu , pubu , xubu and xiebu . Relaxed and unfolding postures, agile, quick and powerful movements and clear rhythm characterize it. It employs the techniques of leaps, jumps, rolling and tumbling. Chaquan, Huaquan and other forms of changquan each has its own unique styles and characteristic features.
Tai Ji Quan
Tai Ji Quan is a soft, light and slow exercise which features continuous, circular and fluent movements. Different styles of taijiquan stress different aspects. Most known families are Yang , Chen , Sun , Wu .
Nan Quan includes all the schools of wushu popular in South China. There have been a variety of schools and styles, such as the Hong , Liu , Cai , Li and Mo families in Guangdong province and the Yongchun and Wuzu schools in Fujian Province. Each of these has its own features, yet with many things in common: powerful exertion of force, firm and steady footwork, clear-cut movements and good positioning of body to be ready to react to attack from any direction. Nanquan performers often shout and have their muscles bulged when applying force.
Xing Yi Quan always starts from a stance with body weight mainly resting on the bag leg ( san ti shi ). It employs the palm cut, the straight blow, the corkscrew, the oblique thrust and the swing as its basis fist techniques. This style of wushu features the imitation of the characteristic movements of certain animals, such as the dragon, tiger, monkey, horse, turtle, cock, hawk, swallow, snake, eagle and bear. Simple and steady movements, straightforward and compact routines, characterize Xingyiquan.
Ba Gua Zhang features special footwork and the turning of the body. It uses changing palm techniques of pushing, holding, carrying, leading, thrusting, cutting, blocking etc. The performer walks crisscross in all the directions. It features swift body movements, flexible footwork and constant changes of directions.
Ba Ji Quan is an infighting school of boxing, featuring short, sharp thrust, powerful approaching, shoulder-striking, pressing and leaning techniques. The routines are usually short and well knit, executed with violent force. Heavy stamping and bold approaches are often used to aid the application of force.
Tong Bei Quan features the five basic techniques of backhand blowing, slapping, thrusting, palm backing and corkscrew blowing - all closely interwoven with each other and supplemented by another eight techniques: circling, grasping, hooking, rubbing, cutting, scraping, poking and flapping . One special feature is that the hand strikes out in the form of palm and blows in the form of fist. Shoulder swinging and wrist-flipping are employed to make striking arms hit far with sudden, quick and explosive force.
Fan Zi Quan boasts short, swift, vigorous movements, compact and well-knit routines and swift force-application. Fanziquan is characterized by quick succession of hand and foot movements and usually several techniques are applied at the same time in a furious manner.
Pi Gua Quan is mainly a long-range striking combat art, characterized by far-reaching, powerful attacks that are coupled with infighting techniques. Violent extension and contraction and hacking plus parrying mark its performance. The application of techniques requires that waist is twisted and hips drawn in, the arms relaxed and crossed and force be focused on the shoulders and arms.
Shao Lin Quan is a great system that embraces a great variety of different styles, including dahongquan, xiaohongquan, paoquan, meihuaquan, qixingquan and luohanquan . Shaolinquan, as is taught at Shaolin Monastery in Song Shan, Henan Province, features straightforward, small, compact and very forceful postures and movements. One peculiarity is that the fist strikes out with the arm neither bent nor totally stretched out. The conclusion of a movement is often accompanied by snorting.
Chuo Jiao Quan is characterized by leg-attacking techniques. The basic leg techniques include stamping , hell-kicking , entangling , pointing , juggling , treading and grinding . In training, each step is followed by a foot kick, with alternating hand and foot movements. This is a style that shines in leg techniques.
Di Tang Quan is a style that features tumbling, falling, rolling and looping. Since it involves a lot of acrobatic stunts, its techniques have a higher degree of difficulty.
Xiang Xing Quan is an imitation-plus-fighting art, which blend combat techniques with imitation of certain animals or birds or appearances of certain persons. It consists of a great number of styles, such as eagle claw , preying mantis , monkey style , snake style and drunken style . Xiangxingquan emphasizes the imitation of the spirit of certain animals or persons. When practicing Xiangxingquan, one should not only imitate the appearance of the object, but also fully display wushu characteristics of attack and defense.
This text is a translated part of the Wushu International Judge Teaching Materials - edition 1995 book of the International Wushu Federation. All rights reserved on the International Wushu Federation.